- Open Access
The role of genetic mutation in alcoholic liver disease
Egyptian Liver Journal volume 12, Article number: 14 (2022)
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the world’s most common type of liver disease caused due to overconsumption of alcohol. The liver supports the best level of tissue damage by hefty drinking since it is the binding site of ethanol digestion. This disease can progress to alcoholic steatohepatitis from alcoholic fatty liver, which implies steatosis has become the most punctual reaction to hefty drinking and is portrayed by the deposition of fat hepatocytes. In addition, steatosis can advance to steatohepatitis, a more extreme, provocative sort of liver damage described by hepatic inflammation. Constant and unnecessary liquor utilization delivers a wide range of hepatic sores, fibrosis and cirrhosis, and sometimes hepatocellular carcinoma. Most people consuming > 40 g of liquor each day create alcoholic fatty liver (AFL); notwithstanding, just a subset of people will grow further developed infection. Hereditary, epigenetic, and non-hereditary components may clarify the impressive interindividual variety in the ALD phenotype.
This systematic review is to classify new candidate genes associated with alcoholic liver disorders, such as RASGRF2, ALDH2, NFE2L2, ADH1B, PNPLA3, DRD2, MTHFR, TM6SF2, IL1B, and CYP2E1, MBOAT7 as well as to revise the functions of each gene in its polymorphic sequence. The information obtained from the previously published articles revealed the crucial relationship between the genes and ALD and discussed each selected gene’s mechanism.
The aim of this review is to highlight the candidate genes associated with the ALD, and the evidence of this study is to deliberate the part of genetic alterations and modifications that can serve as an excellent biological maker, risk predictors, and therapeutic targets for this disease.
Abundance liquor utilization and ensuing alcoholic liver disease (ALD) represent a significant weight on medical services assets that have been perceived for a long time. The alcoholic liver infection represents 70 to 80% of all straightforwardly recorded mortality from liquor . Notwithstanding, however, the association between supported high liquor utilization and reformist liver harm is broadly acknowledged; it is evident that the reformist liver disease exists alone in the minority of the drinkers at conceivable damage levels. Histologically, ALD addresses a spectrum from steatosis to fibrosis and cirrhosis via steatohepatitis . Data from studies in human  and animal [4, 5] models show that the progression of hepatic steatosis after mild/high alcohol intake is early and consistently predictable. Just a few people, by comparison, move to more advanced diseases. Inflammation, fibrosis, and cirrhosis in about 10 to 20% of the cases, finally [6, 7]. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may then develop 1 to 2% per year . This growth, observed only in index biopsy alcoholic deterioration, is well demonstrated by a European patient cohort . Over a median time of 10.5 years (range 6–16), 10% of cirrhosis has increased (and 18% developed significant hygroma or cirrhosis). If all those who had alcohol intake > 40 units/week, or equal to 400 g ethanol/week, consider the possibility that this was danger up to 30–37% and above of cirrhosis . The other possible hazards of alcoholic liver infection, such as drug abuse, drinking propensity, sexual preference, genetic qualities, nutrition, and various kinds of liver diseases such as hepatitis C-B, hemochromatosis, etc., are shown in Fig. 1. In the research Dionysus [6, 10], it became clear that ALD does not produce 100 kg of liquor for a lifetime compared with 30g of liquor intake daily, that is, less than 2/3 glasses of wine for a day. The frequency of ALD and cirrhosis rises linearly above this threshold with the increased intake of alcohol. Factors affecting the nutrition of liver functions are still discussed . Nutritional status is relevant to a particular individual's census and is too difficult to describe and intuitively understand accurately. Therefore, in fewer revenue classes than in rich people, the liver condition characteristic of protein malnutrition interacts more likely with and amplifies the age of dam caused by substance misuse .
Genetic aspects of alcoholic liver disease
Genetic variables are ascribed 30–50% to too high average abnormalities like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease, and cirrhosis . Three lines of research support that the development of this disease is susceptible to genetic and environmental modification: Firstly, the gender differences—the female population is often more prone to this condition than that of the male population by using equal amounts of alcohol ; secondly, there could be an inter-ethnic gender differential—the Hispanic are more vulnerable to this disease than black and white people ; third, twin research shows better concordance between monozygotic twins for ALD cirrhosis than dizygotic twins [16, 17]. These data demonstrate that alcohol susceptibility genes are independent of cirrhosis related to alcohol and are evidence of the susceptibility of ethanol to organ-specific alcohol complications. Moreover, oxidative stress is one of the significant risk factors in the gene associated with alcohol dehydrogenase, insulin tolerance, lipid peroxidation, aka nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFD), and shared genes and stresses and damage response. These genes encode proteins such as receptors of endotoxins, cytokines, immunological regulators, and mediators of fibrogenesis. Thus, alcohol-based liver disorder is a diverse concern due to genetic, and other general hazard causes that may boost the various problems, such as liver alcohol infection, alcohol-based hepatitis, and alcohol-based cirrhosis. Generally, “cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)” genes are linked to a wide variety of issues with “alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH).” These genes, therefore, play an essential role in hazard development.
The genes listed in the research are found from literature papers published throughout the past thirty years from the Science Web, PubMed, and several other databases. Titles and Abstracts were used in all literature, and two different reviewers have contributed to the published articles. The papers were divided into two sections. In the first category of papers, the alcoholic diseased context was gathered in the 2nd category, articles, genes, and their connection to alcoholic liver disease. Fig. 2 shows the method for compiling the papers applicable to this study. The genes selected have both intronic and exonic mutations and have found that gene expression in diverse places leads to many nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The selected genes and functions that are strongly linked with 'alcoholic liver disease' are described in Table 1.
Selected genes associated with ALD
Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2
This gene is located on chromosome 5 at 5q14.1, with 31 exons, of which 1,237 amino acids. Hereditary polymorphisms of RAS quality individuals are linked to problems with liquors, such as neurotransmission and inflammation in a few organic cycles [28, 29]. The Ras-specific nuclear-release factor 2 gene of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs26907 was associated with greater alcohol use  and the reward-induced liquor reaction variability. These findings are expected to influence the defenselessness of alcohol abuse . It is supported in a synaptic activity primarily by Ras protein that Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2 (RasGRF2) directs . In addition, the stimulation of RASGRF2 by “mitogen-activated protein kinases” (MAPKs) and “extracellular signal-regulated kinases” (ERKs) in inflammatory pathways has been deduced [33, 34]. If we believe that RASGRF2 was inflammable by activating MAPK/ERK pathways, it is physiologically conceivable that polymorphisms are associated with RASGRF2 and ALD [34, 35]. RasGrf2 stimulates Rac to enhance actin polymerization through dephosphorylation and cofilin activation, a dual Ras/Rac nuclear guanine exchange element. It leads to many protrusions, and an enhanced cell circularity reduces lateral cell migration. Inside the nucleus, βArr1 prevents rasgrf2’s gene expression by improving the promotor region’s at least partly methylation. The expression of βArr1 expression leads to higher RasGRF2 and Rac activity, as shown in Fig. 3 . The results of Novo-Veleiro et al. indicate that including the A allele in RASGRF2 polymorphism might intensify an inflammatory reaction of ethanol-induced RasGRF2, help activate the macrophage and enhance the risk of hepatic fibrosis. A link between RASGRF2 G>A polymorphism and alcoholism is also physiologically possible. RASGRF2, primarily via dopamine receptors and broadcasters, can activate the MAPK/ERK tract, which involves neurotransmission and possible alcoholic reward mechanisms [37, 38].
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2
This gene is situated on chromosome 12 at 12q24.12, covering 13 exons, including 517 amino acids. The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene was speculated to modify hereditary weakness to liquor reliance, and liquor prompted liver infections. Mitochondrial ALDH2 assumes the focal part in human acetaldehyde digestion between both isoforms because of its sub-micromolar Km on the acetaldehyde . ALDH2 is a polymorphic gene that shows the necessary work of ALDH2 in the oxidation of liquids. A single nucleotide polymorphic acid predicts lysine at exon 12 instead of glutamic acid at position 504 . The standard kind of SNP (rs671) (504glu), which includes a glue (G) allele (recently called ALDH2*1 allele), forms a catalytically idle isozyme, limiting the movement of the 504lys (A, previously ALDH2*2 and 487Lys) allele in the metabolism of acetaldehyde [40, 41]. Thus, patients with Lys alone have decreased their capacity to remove acetaldehyde and suffer dangerous effects periodically, such as liquor flushing, nausea, or vomiting [42, 43]. After use, the peak concentration on blood acetaldehyde is 6 and 19 times greater than in the familiar allele individuals in the heterozygous and homozygous alone 504lys . Thus, it is feasible that the hazard of overconsumption of drink by people with this allele may be lowered chiefly due to adverse drink reactions, and hence this allele may affect the danger of diseases associated with liquors such as ALD. An ALDH2 SNP impacts their enzyme effect and ability to utilize acetaldehyde following liquor consumption [39, 40, 45]. For instance, in individuals with heterozygous (glu/lys) genotype, the reduction in ALDH2action is more than 100-overlay and glu/glu homozygotes; the ALDH2 activity is crucial in ALDH2 management [39, 40]. Hepatic ALDH2 motion in heterozygous gly/lys individuals is entirely unacceptable. ALDH2 motion is almost unconscious . Thus, in individuals with lys alleles after consuming liquor, the aggregation of acetaldehyde consistently promotes vasodilating, flushing the face, tachycardia, nausea, and vomiting [42, 43]. In light of the awful adverse effects of acetaldehyde aggression, this allele should be ensured against overuse in liquor liquors. The oxidative course of liquor metabolism, comprising alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, is present in the liver. The lack of activity is caused by the inability to appreciably metabolize acetaldehyde into acetic acid of the aldehyde dehydrogenase allele, ALDH2. The acetaldehyde collected forms a protein adduct and the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), undermining DNA repair resulting in carcinogenesis (Fig. 4 [46, 47]). The important discovery in the study of Chang et al. was that ALDH2-504lys patients were less related to ALD than ALDH2-504glu patients, using both genotype and allelic tests.
Nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2
This gene is placed on chromosome 2 at 2q31.2 and covers six exons, 605 amino acids included. Valuable connections and ALD vulnerability between an SNP in the nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) promoter region. ALD is, by all accounts, the most widely recognized side effect of orthotopic hepatic transfers in specific cultures, which can cause cirrhosis, hepatic malignancy, and hepatic dysfunction . Although the etiology of ALD is not yet indeed known, there could be an overlap between behavioral, environmental, and hereditary impacts [48, 49]. Most examinations on the genetic inclination to ALD are dependent on cell metabolism genes and enzyme detoxification . Recently, the “patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3)” gene is a possible indicator of sensitivity to hepatic damage related to alcohol . These three proteins are implicated in fat metabolism. Hence, they may also take a role in ALD pathogenesis, as the first histological finding of alcohol overconsumption is steatosis . The NFE2L2 gene variation (Discoveries of  (Nunes dos Santos et al., 2019)) directly links to ALD cirrhosis. Additionally, demonstrate it in SNP rs35652124 variant-274A refers to the prevalence of ALD fibrosis, not the cirrhosis associated with HCV. It is confirmed that single-nucleotide variations might promote ALD cirrhosis pathogenesis concerned with promoting NFE2L2, namely variant-274A of SNP rs35652124. The NFE2L2 gene codes for the transcriptional factor Nrf2.Nrf2 mRNA is transcribed and then transported to the cytoplasm within the nucleus, translated into Nrf2 protein. Nrf2 also relates to “Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1)” and Cullin 3, which ubiquities and kills Nrf2. Nrf2 also relates to the cytoplasm. Cullin 3 ubiquitin’s Nrf2, whereas (keap1) is a cycle-regulating substrate connection protein. Nrf2 is transported into the proteasome complex after ubiquitination, degrading rated, and recycled in its segments. The ubiquitination architecture of keap1-Cul3 collapses if cysteine accretions in keap1 are disrupted by oxidative or electrical stress. If allergies do not damage nrf2, it accumulates in the cytoplasm and enters the nucleus, as seen in Fig. 5. In the emerging region of many antioxidative genes, Nrf-2 binds with a bit of Maf protein throughout the nucleus and connects it to the “antioxidant response element” (ARE), leading to a transcription. The aiming genes of Nrf2 are the genes “NAD(P)H Quinone 1 (Nqo1), HMOX1, GCLM, and CPX” .
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B
Chromosome 4 at 4q23 contains the gene alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B). “single nucleotide polymorphisms” (SNPs) may usually be said to modify the digestion of alcohol . ADH1B Arg is a primary SNP type (rs1229984 or Arg48His in Exon 3). The ADH1B His allele encodes a particularly dynamic allozyme linked to lower AD rates in different affiliations . ADH1B-encoded molecule comprises numerous substrates in a family of alcoholic dehydrogenases, alcohol, retinol, different hydrocarbon alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Approximately 10% of persons with alcohol cirrhosis, 10 to 35% have hepatitis, and about 5% have liquor-actuated pancreatitis [55, 56]. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (the last two of these are liquor diseases), which can modify AD's legacy, is regarded as a critical ethanol enzyme that oxidizes AD and alcoholic liver infection, cirrhosis, and pancreatitis . The findings of  and some clinical disorders with alcohol caused by the many ethnic groups—notably Asian populations—provide more substantial evidence of incorporating the ADH1B gene in liquor dependence and ill-treatment pathogenesis. Given that the alcohol intake of ADH1B and ALDH2 does not change, ADH1B*2 alloy and ALDH2*1 genotype and their faster metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde might be responsible for these effects. TG and mitochondrial syntheses are two essential strategies to delete excess hepatocyte fatty acids (Fig. 6) .
Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3
Proofs for the PNPLA3 gene (positioned on chromosome 22 at 22q13.31) are established with ALD (rs738409: C > G, NP 079,501.2: p.I148M) . More than one nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with a higher risk of ALD . The I148M variant, in the quality of PNPLA3 (rs738409: C > G), replaces cytosine with guanine, which causes a methionine-isoleucine converse with codon 148. It encompasses 481-amino acid enzymes that are necessary for the patatin-like phospholipase domain family. Simultaneously, the protein encrypting this characteristic is unrecognizable from its certified physiological and biological limit. A daily hydrolyzed triglyceride was evaluated by using PNPLA3 protein. The protein has no typical enzyme effect if replacement I148M occurs, which causes triglycerides to accumulate within the liver. Downstream hepatocellular carcinoma, alcoholic fibrosis, and hepatic carcinoma . The delicacy of alcohol-related liver illness is assessed in strong drinks by PNPLA3 gene polymorphism [59, 62, 63]. In addition, for these gene polymorphisms, the degree of alcoholic liver damage has been revealed. There is also a considerable validation of the predecessor's wide-ranging association gene and genome results in a study  in a clinical heavy drink sample for alcohol-associated hepatic injuries, particularly alcoholic cirrhosis connected to variance PNPLA 3. There are three primary routes of lipid digestion, stress, and inflammation to the liver damage caused by ethanol use. The PNPLA3 p.I148M SNP enhances lipogenesis and works to chronic phases by moving liver disorders. NFE2L2 gene for Nrf2 is caused by oxidative stress that controls several components of antioxidant reactions (AREs). This epigenetic process promotes the cell responsiveness to the ROS through phosphorylation activation of Nrf2. In ethanol exposure, particular microRNAs exhibit a positive link when the LPS signal in cells of Kupffer is upregulated, which in turn releases the beneficial TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 pro-inflammable cytokines. This process combines liquor use with hepatitis and steatohepatitis inflammatory state of the liver (Fig. 7) this epigenetic process .
Dopamine receptor D2
Nine exons cover chromosome 11 at 11q23.2, and it codes for 443 amino acids included. A clinical assessment of receptor density and capacity has revealed that the thickness and decreased capacity of dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2) in loud drinkers may be responsible for the urge and subsequent retrogression . Research of genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) has revealed that the legacy of different SNPs may increase or reduce the chance of drink abuse . Past hereditary affiliate studies of Dopamine receptors (D1-D5) and DAT studies show DRD2 is related to liquid susceptibility . The DRD2 quality polymorphisms have included such clinical and hereditary evidence as significant candidates for liquor addiction, and they are most widely regarded. Many exams have been directed to the possible link between DRD2 polymorphism and alcohol misuse since 1990. The qualities for DRD2 have three polymorphisms most commonly examined (- 141C ins/del, TaqI B, and TaqI A), and their association with alcohol dependence is questionable [68, 69]. Its polymorphism promoter determines the DRD2 (- 141C Ins/Dele, rs1799732) and its strength in receptors, including insertions of cytosine (Ins)/del) . SNP The TaqI B is regarded to take a more significant part in transcription control than the administrative or primary gene coding regions (5' region) . TaqI A SNP is DRD2’s most dramatic polymorphism because of its profoundly contradictory link with AD. An A1 SNP allele was related to inadequate accessible receptors for striatum dopamine . It has become apparent lately that the newly seen polymorphism TaqI A in 3′ UTR of DRD2 has been positioned in a novel gene nearby (in the opposite direction) called ankyrin repeat and kinase (ANKK1), where it causes an abnormal replacement . In 2010, Prasad et al.  investigations provided an insight into an inherited threat to Indian alcohol dependency. Therapeutic outcomes can be achieved in DRD2 quality between Indian ineffective participants—1141C Ins/Del and TaqI An. It was believed that dopamine (DA) was involved in alcohol addiction pathophysiology, as alcohol may induce the nucleus to accumulate to promote self-rewards through the dopaminergic pathway and continue drinking . The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene is a possible gene for alcohol dependency . The emergence of distinct HSCs causes Varian etiology variations. Activated HSCs promote fibrosis and hepatocyte necrosis. The genetic polymorphisms engaged in each pathophysiologic process can alter these Pathogens (Fig. 8) .
This gene is located on chromosome 1 at 1p36.22 and covers 12 exons, 656 amino acids. A molecule that plays an important component in the digestion of folate is encoded in the “methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR)” gene, enabling a transition from home to methionine . The r s1801133 SNP (sometimes called C677T) is a non-equivalent variant A (Ala) > V (Val) . Replacement A>V of the Ala222 amino acid (Ala222Val) results in lowering the MTHFR protein movement and increased plasma homocysteine levels . Multiple illnesses, including hepatocellular carcinoma, steatosis, and cirrhosis, were associated with Hyperhomocysteinemia [79,80,81] and liver fibrosis in CHC  (Fig. 9). Some MTHFR rs1801133 reviews are written in patient populations with CHC. Polymorphism is connected with hepatic steatosis  and liver fibrosis growth [81, 82]. However, it did appear that other publications did not relate to people having HCV [84,85,86]. The C677T hereditary mutation of the Ala22 Val gene in the MTHFR protein culminates within lower thermolabile variation and higher circulating levels of homocysteine the lower action-related . In addition, MTHFR rs1801133 SNP is also discovered with MTHFR action reduction in highly linked imbalance (LD) with other MTHFR SNPs as A1298C (rs1801131) . As far as liver illnesses are concerned, the polymorphism MTHFR rs1801133 is recognized as changed fiber digestion , which would increase the advancement of HCV steatosis and fibroids  and also cirrhosis [79, 90,91,92]. In CHC, liver fibrosis/cirrhosis was associated with MTHFR rs1801133 [81, 82] . Pineda-Tenor et al. reported the reduction of risk of advancement in liver damage and improvement of hepatitis in “MTHFR (rs1801133 C)” allele transporters than (rs1801133 T) allele transports. This claim upholds the notion that MTHFR mutation (rs1801133) appears to become a key element in “hepatitis C immuno-pathogenesis.” DNA hypomethylation can induce carcinogenesis . For example, the transcription of certain proto-oncogenes tumorigenic metastasis (for example, synuclein μ) might react to the stimulation of hypomethylation . Chronically serious alcoholism contributes to a significantly declining SAM tissue causing DNA hypomethylation. Moreover, alcohol disturbs the methionine digestion of the folate cycle, vital for releasing the necessary 'methyl groups to methylate DNA.' Folate becomes an essential antioxidant to produce DNA, and thus, it is coupled with at least thirty separate enzymes through a convoluted folate cycle, especially methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) .
Transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2
This gene is positioned on chromosome 19 at 19p13.11 with 10 exons, 377 amino acids. The mutation transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) gene E167K (rs58542926) emphasizes adenine substitution of guanine (nucleotide position 499), leading to a change in the amino acid position 167(E167K) of glutamate into lysine . In the transitional compartment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ER-Golgi Moderates for HePG2 cells, subcellular restrictions have shown the TM6SF2 to be mainly expressed . TM6SF2 addresses an ER membrane protein, and E167K mutation causes division of cells and increases the biodegradation of TM6SF2 . TM6SF2 downregulation influences cost like receptor emissions from and liver-lipid parodic quantities in HepG2 cells . Cyclin D1 and P53 upregulations and downregulation P27s can influence HCC HEPA1–6 cells . Dismantled cell cycles can be associated with an increased HCC growth hazard and energy digestion advancement inside hepatocytes  . Tang et al. reported that gene polymorphism TM6SF2 rs58542926 is fully connected with susceptibility to malignancy liver.TM6SF2 exports VLDL to serum from the liver, which leads to elevated blood lipids and a hepatic steatosis risk, and myocardial infarction . As indicated in Fig. 10, the TM6SF2 mutant rs58542926 was highly linked to progressive fibrosis and circulation .
Interleukin 1 beta
This gene is arranged on chromosome 12 at 2q14.1, covering 7 exons, including 269 amino acids. Cytokine interleukin-1b assumes a focal part in the inflammation process. In sufferers from “alcoholic liver disease (ALD),” especially those who struggle from cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis, serum interleukin 1 beta (IL-1b) levels increase. Late, the hereditary polymorphisms of this cytokine were confirmed . The cytokines and IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) members of the IL-1 family (IL-1F) include the opponent IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1R (IL-1Ra), the opponent IL-18, IL-33, the opponent IL-36, and the opponent IL-38 . The polymorphisms in the IL-1b and IL-1Ra genes influence cytokine creation cooperatively in vivo in an intricate and complicated way . Polymorphisms in the IL-1b gene may similarly improve Japanese ALD recently exhibited in the Caucasian healthy population . The research of  Takamatsu et al. suggests that IL-1b polymorphisms can be found in Japan’s heavy drinkers by the progress of ALD. Alcohol mediating increases the sensitivity of intestinal endotoxins by oxidative stress macrophages, which release inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1b, which change the activity of star cells and hepatocytes. Endotoxin also alters the activation of the star and endothelial cells and helps to damage the liver, as already shown in Fig. 7 .
Cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily E member 1
This gene is situated on chromosome 10 at 10q26.3, covering 9 exons, including 493 amino acids. Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is a detoxicating phase I protein that expects enormous components to activate diverse xenobiotics, such as alcohol, metabolically. CYP2E1 is physiologically responsible for around 10percent of the uptake of alcohol but may be caused by chronic ethanol organization [104, 105]. Storing evidence showed that CYP2E1 action could anticipate essential elements of ALD etiology related to the responsive oxygen (ROS) overproduction and lipid peroxidation redesign [106,107,108]. As a result, it is conceivable to recognize the hazard for ALD in persons of functional polymorphism inside the CYP2E1 gene. CYP2E1 consists of the six limitation polymorphisms (RFLP) length fragments that increase transcription and enzyme action in the Pst I/Rsa I polymorphism within the 59-flanking region . Within intron 6, Dra I also was correlated to upregulation and enzymatic activity with another polymorphism . Throughout the last 20 years, the connection between the gene polymorphisms CYP2E1 and the hazards of ALD was examined. The meta-investigation by  Zeng et al., 2013 depicts that CYP2E1 Pst I/Rsa I polymorphism may not be altogether connected with an ALD (ALC) advanced form, however maybe fundamentally connected with another type of ALD, for example, steatosis, hepatitis, fibrosis. Besides, CYP2E1 Dra I polymorphism maybe not be altogether connected with the ALD chances. The role of CYP2E1 in alcohol metabolism is already shown in above Fig. 6.
ALD is a complicated, multi-factorial, multi-stage disease with fundamental histological characteristics, including steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis (hepatic triglyceride [HTGC] over 5%). All infections are progressing and resulting in a large diversity of interpatient. Although there is broad recognition of the relationship between continuous high levels of liquor use and progressive liver damage, only a minority of people who consume potentially hazardous liquor acquire a progressive liver disease. Defenselessly, the aggregated effects of several relatively frequent polymorphisms (minor allele frequency percent—5%) regulate complicated issues such as ALD—each of which contributes a little overall risk of disease. A single gene does not determine the result; hence, specific inheritance examples rarely occur in connections. Progressed statistical techniques are needed to build up a genetic modifier of risk. There has been significant interest in earlier findings relating to liquor maluses in this SNP. Individual nucleotide polymorphisms are the most famous polymorphisms and occur in about one out of 1000 base pairs across the genome (coding sequences, intronic sequences, and promoter region). Since potential confounders could not be precluded totally, further investigations are expected to explain the job of these hereditary variations in alcohol-related illnesses.
Our analysis indicated the gene polymorphism chosen, such as RASGRF2, ALDH2, NFE2L2, ADH1B, PNPLA3, DRD2, MTHFR, TM6SF2, IL1B, MBOAT7, and CYP2E1, is linked to alcoholic liver disease and also deals with its role in the polymorphic region of those genes. The exam limits based on race, gender, and other factors, including climate and biology, have been defined for all of these genes. A further empirical study is required, with the necessary data, to investigate the improvement and treatment of genetic variants in alcoholic diseases.
Availability of data and materials
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Monoamine oxidase A
Hepatic stellate cells
Dopamine receptor D2
Bitter taste receptor
Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily E, polypeptide 1
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family
Alcohol dehydrogenase class I, beta polypeptide
Microsome triglyceride transfer protein
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
Low-density lipoprotein receptor
Transforming growth factor-beta 1
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Nuclear factor-kappa B
Reactive oxygen species
Betaine homocysteine methyltransferases
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2
Nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B
Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3
Dopamine receptor D2
Transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2
Interleukin 1 beta
Cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily E member 1
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Balakrishnan, R., Mohammed, V. & Veerabathiran, R. The role of genetic mutation in alcoholic liver disease. Egypt Liver Journal 12, 14 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s43066-022-00175-2
- Alcoholic liver disease
- Gene mutation