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Table 4 Comparison between improved and deceased groups regarding categorical variables

From: Utility of prognostic scores in predicting short-term mortality in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure

  Improved (n=64) Deceased (n=185) P
Sex
Males 47 (73) 130 (70.3) 0.678
Females 17 (27) 55 (29.7)
Precipitating factor of ACLF
Sepsis 16 (25) 108 (58.4) <0.0001
Upper GI bleeding 7 (10.9) 18 (9.7)
De novo AIH 1 (1.6) 0 (0)
AIH flare 6 (9.4) 2 (1.1)
DILI 7 (10.9) 2 (1.1)
HBV 1 (1.6) 2 (1.1)
HCV 0 (0) 1 (0.5)
HDV 1 (1.6) 1 (0.5)
HEV 0 (0) 2 (1.1)
Wilson’s disease 1 (1.6) 0 (0)
Unknown 24 (37.5) 47 (25.4)
Etiology of pre-existing CLD
HCV 30 (46.8) 113 (61.1) 0.055
AIH 6 (9.4) 2 (1.1)
Budd-Chiari syndrome 0 (0) 2 (1.1)
HBV 5 (7.8) 8 (4.3)
HBV-HCV co-infection 0 (0) 1 (0.5)
Unknown 23 (35.9) 59 (31.9)
Ascites
No 37 (57.8) 38 (20.5) <0.0001
Mild to moderate 24 (37.5) 131 (70.8)
Marked 3 (4.7) 16 (8.6)
Hepatic encephalopathy
No 56 (87.5) 26 (14.1) <0.0001
Grades I–II 7 (10.9) 116 (62.7)
Grades III–IV 1 (1.6) 43 (23.2)
Initial admission
Ward 50 (78.1) 8 (4.3) <0.0001
ICU 14 (21.9) 177 (95.7)
Child-Pugh class
B 16 (23.8) 3 (1.6) <0.0001
C 48 (76.2) 182 (98.4)
ACLF grade
1 51 (79.7) 39 (21.1) <0.0001
2 13 (20.3) 95 (51.4)
3 0 (0) 51 (27.6)
  1. ACLF Acute-on-chronic liver failure, AIH Autoimmune hepatitis, DILI Drug-induced liver injury, ICU Intensive care unit, GI Gastrointestinal, HBV Hepatitis B virus, HCV Hepatitis C virus, HDV Hepatitis D virus, HEV Hepatitis E virus