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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the studied patients (categorical variables)

From: Utility of prognostic scores in predicting short-term mortality in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure

Variable n (%)
Sex
Males 177 (71.1)
Females 72 (28.9)
Precipitating factor of ACLF
Sepsis 124 (49.8)
Upper GI bleeding 23 (9.2)
De novo AIH 1 (0.4)
AIH flare 8 (3.2)
DILI 9 (3.6)
HBV 2 (0.8)
HCV 1 (0.4)
HDV 2 (0.8)
HEV 1 (0.4)
Wilson’s disease 1 (0.4)
Unknown 77 (30.9)
Etiology of pre-existing CLD
HCV 144 (57.8)
Autoimmune hepatitis 8 (3.2)
Budd-Chiari syndrome 2 (0.8)
HBV 13 (5.2)
HBV-HCV co-infection 1 (0.4)
Unknown 81 (32.5)
Ascites
No 76 (30.5)
Mild to moderate 154 (61.8)
Marked 19 (7.6)
Hepatic encephalopathy
No 82 (32.9)
Grades I–II 123 (49.4)
Grades III–IV 44 (17.7)
Initial admission
Ward 58 (23.3)
ICU 191 (76.7)
Child-Pugh class
B 18 (7.2)
C 231 (92.8)
ACLF grade
1 89 (35.7)
2 109 (43.8)
3 51 (20.5)
Outcome
Improved 64 (25.7)
Deceased 185 (74.3)
  1. ACLF Acute-on-chronic liver failure, AIH Autoimmune hepatitis, CLD Chronic liver disease, DILI Drug-induced liver injury, ICU Intensive care unit, GI Gastrointestinal, HBV Hepatitis B virus, HCV Hepatitis C virus, HDV Hepatitis D virus, HEV Hepatitis E virus