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Table 2 Risk factors of gallstones and complications in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients

From: Gallstones in Egyptian infants and children: risk factors, complications and outcome: a single center experience

  Symptomatic, n = 22 (%) Asymptomatic, n = 13 (%) P value
Identified risk factors 14 (63.6) 13 (100) 0.01*
Hemolytic anemia    
Chronic hemolytic anemia 3 (13.6) 0 (0) 0.274
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency 3 (13.6) 6 (46.2) 0.050
Dehydration 6 (27.3) 2 (15.4) 0.680
Therapy with ceftriaxone 5 (22.7) 1 (7.7) 0.377
Family history of gallstones 2 (9.1) 4 (30.8) 0.166
Hypertriglyceridemia 1 (4.5) 3 (23.1) 0.134
Cholestasis 1 (4.5) 2 (15.4) 0.541
Prematurity 0 (0) 2 (15.4) 0.131
Cystic fibrosis 1 (4.5) 0 (0) 0.435
Choledocholithiasis 7 (31.8) 0 (0) 0.015*
RBCs (105 cells/mm3) in mean ± SD 4.4 ± 0.5 5 ± 1 0.047*
Hemoglobin (g/dl) in mean ± SD 11.2 ± 1.4 12.3 ± 0.8 0.006*
Hematocrit (%) in mean ± SD 33.8 ± 3.4 37.5 ± 3.4 0.008*
T. bilirubin (N < 1.5 mg/dl) median (IQR) 0.7 (0.4–2.6) 0.3 (0.2–0.8) 0.021
ALT (N < 40 U/L) in median (IQR) 38 (27–92) 26 (17–40) 0.108
AST (N < 60 U/L) in median (IQR) 47.5 (36–75) 34 (32–71) 0.484
GGT (N < 30 U/L) in median (IQR) 37.5 (12–114) 16 (8–28) 0.147
AP (N < 640 U/L) in median (IQR) 247 (190–375) 260 (192–371) 0.905
Albumin (N > 3.5 g/dl) in mean ± SD 4.2 ± 0.8 3.9 ± 0.4 0.136
INR (N < 1.1) in mean ± SD 1.1 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 0.1 0.972
  1. *P value is significant
  2. ALT alanine aminotransferase, AP alkaline phosphatase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, GGT gammaglutamyl transpeptidase, INR international randomized ratio, IQR interquartile range, RBCs red blood cells, SD standard deviation, T total