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Table 1 Risk factors of gallstones and laboratory investigations among medical and surgical patients

From: Gallstones in Egyptian infants and children: risk factors, complications and outcome: a single center experience

  Surgical, n = 7 (%) Medical, n = 23 (%) P value
Identified risk factors 5 (71.4) 19 (82.6) 0.6
Hemolytic anemia    
Hereditary spherocytosis 1 (14.3) 1 (4.3) 0.4
Major thalassemia 0 (0) 1 (4.3) 1.0
G6PD deficiency 2 (28.6) 7 (30.4) 1.0
Dehydration 1 (14.3) 5 (21.7) 1.0
Therapy with ceftriaxone 2 (28.6) 4 (17.4) 0.6
Family history of gallstones 1 (14.3) 4 (17.4) 1.0
Hypertriglyceridemia 1 (14.3) 3 (16.7) 1.0
Cholestasis 0(0) 2 (8.7) 1.0
Prematurity 0 (0) 2 (8.7) 1.0
Cystic fibrosis 0 (0) 1(4.3) 1.0
Hemoglobin (g/dl) in mean ± SD 11.5 ± 0.95 11.7 ± 1.2 0.8
T. bilirubin (N < 1.5 mg/dl) median (IQR) 2.3 (1.1–5.1) 0.4 (0.2–0.8) 0.002*
D. bilirubin in median (IQR) 1.1 (0.5–3) 0.1 (0.05–0.2) 0.01*
ALT (N < 40 U/L) in median (IQR) 92 (32–178) 29 (20–45) 0.006*
AST (N < 60 U/L) in median (IQR) 55 (36–125) 37 (30–66) 0.1
GGT (N < 30 U/L) in median (IQR) 105 (36–114) 17 (11–64) 0.09
AP (N < 640 U/L) in median (IQR) 252 (180–533) 260 (192–371) 1.0
INR (N < 1.1) in mean ± SD 1.04 ± 0.04 1.1 ± 0.12 0.4
Cholesterol (N < 200 mg/dl) in mean ± SD 180 ± 47 134 ± 31 0.006*
HDL (mg/dl) in mean ± SD 38 ± 12 43 ± 9.5 0.3
LDL (mg/dl) in mean ± SD 120 ± 44 68 ± 29 0.002*
Triglyceride (N < 150 mg/dl) in median (IQR) 92 (62–115) 88 (62–119) 0.9
  1. *P value is significant
  2. ALT alanine aminotransferase, AP alkaline phosphatase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, D direct, GGT gammaglutamyl transpeptidase, G6PD Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, HDL high-density lipoproteins, INR international randomized ratio, IQR interquartile range, LDL low-density lipoproteins, RBCs red blood cells, SD standard deviation, T total